As part of the WTI's NCCR Trade Regulation this work package studies challenges to governing the international trading system, both in the public and private realm. Research addresses governance issues in a multi-layered system. The sub-projects build upon and complement findings of the research conducted in Phase I of the NCCR trade regulation. Phase II focuses on two major areas of research not explicitly addressed so far: judicial governance and the role of private actors in international trade disputes, in law-making and standard setting, in particular with regard to human rights and responsible governance. The WP tackles the traditional conceptual dichotomy of state-led and private-led governance and works within a framework that bridges both public and private elements of trade governance.